Socio-Demographics and Tinnitus
Previous studies have addressed issues and variables that correlate with tinnitus. However, Hoekstra, Wesdrop, and van Zanten (2014) report that previous studies have used univariate analysis, which potentially included (or perhaps were secondary to) unknown confounding effects. Therefore, in their retrospective study they used a multivariate analysis to evaluate the interdependencies between multiple variables.
They report that 309 patients were evaluated from 2009 to 2012 including 208 males and 101 females. The mean age of the study participants was 51 years and the mean duration of tinnitus was 7 years. Of note, the mean tinnitus pitch was reported to be 6000 Hz and the mean tinnitus loudness was 51 dB HL.
Hoekstra, Wesdrop, and van Zanten postulate that loudness or pitch (of tinnitus) does not relate to perceived severity of tinnitus. Rather, “the severity experienced has its repercussions on the way loudness or pitch is perceived….” Further, the “percentage of tinnitus awareness during the day, self-reported depression and/or anxiety, and subjectively experienced loudness…” are strongly related to the severity of the perceived tinnitus. Three additional factors that were determined to be related to severity of tinnitus were level of education, additional somatic complaints and subjectively reported variations in loudness and pitch.
For More Information, References, and Recommendations
Baigi A, Oden A, Almlid-Larsen V, Barrenas ML, Holgers, KM.(2011): Tinnitus in the General Population With a Focus on Noise and Stress—A Public Health Study. Ear & Hearing 32(6):787–789.
Beck DL. (2011) Hearing Aid Amplification and Tinnitus:2011. Hearing Journal 64(6):12–14.
Beck DL, DePlacido C, Paxton C. (2014) Issues in Tinnitus: 2014-2015. Hearing Review September.
Hoekstra CEL, Wesdrop FM, van Zanten GA. (2014) Socio-Demographic, Health, and Tinnitus-Related Variables Affecting Tinnitus Severity. Ear & Hearing 35(5)544–554.
Jacobson G. (2012) Tinnitus Relief- At What Cost? Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 23(2):80.
Kochkin S, Tyler R, Born J. (2011): MarkeTrak VIII: The Prevalence of Tinnitus in the United States and the Self-Reported Efficacy of Various Treatments. Hearing Review18(12):10–26.
Newman CW, Sandridge SA. (2012) A Comparison of Benefit and Economic Value Between Two Sound Therapy Tinnitus Management Options. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 23:126–138.