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Conditions/Diseases

Conditions/Diseases

Questioning APD in 2015

DeBonis (2015) reviewed the literature with regard to central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) in children to assess “whether the degree of uncertainty surrounding CAPD warrants a change in current protocols….” Relevant search terms and topics were evaluated through contemporary electronic search tools and published peer-reviewed texts.

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Tinnitus and Physical Activity

Carpenter-Thompson et al (2015) report their online survey of 1,030 people, of which approximately 630 responses were used in their analysis.

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Treatment of Meniere’s Syndrome or Disease

Syed et al (2015) evaluated the evidence-based treatments of Meniere’s Syndrome and/or Meniere’s Disease (MS/D) over the last two decades. One hundred and four (104) studies from the first decade (1994-2003) and 101 from the second decade (2004-2013) were included. They report a statistical decline in surgeries (from 43 percent to 27 percent, from the first decade to the second, respectively) and an increase in intratympanic steroid injections and an increase in use of the Meniett device.

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Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Steroids

Dallan and colleagues (2010) noted that the natural history of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is currently unknown. That is, it is unclear how often spontaneous recovery occurs, but spontaneous recovery may occur in 30 to 60 percent of SSNHL cases…and when spontaneous recovery occurs; it usually occurs within the first week or two of onset. They stated no pharmacologic treatments had been shown to be effective using “evidence criteria” and “the lack of actual evidence for this method calls for serious evaluation through a randomized study.

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Dementia, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Disease

Pichora-Fuller reports that Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is progressive, degenerative, and is the most common form of dementia. She reports for those older than age 70 diagnosed with AD, AD is usually fatal within 10 years. Pichora-Fuller notes that dementia is more common in people with hearing loss, than in those with normal hearing. Indeed, the risk of developing dementia increases dramatically (two to five times greater) for those with hearing loss.

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Most Common Otological Emergencies?

In a nationwide retrospective review from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, sponsored by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Mamaker (2015) reports that there were more than 388 million Emergency Department (ED) visits between 2009 and 2011. Of those, approximately 8.5 million (2.2 percent) ED visits were attributed to a primary otological issue. Of the patients seen for a primary otological complaint, roughly two-thirds were 17 years old or younger, and the majority of patients with an otological complaint were treated and released.

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Baby Boomers and Alzheimer’s Demographics

The Alzheimer’s Association (2015) estimated some 81 percent of all people in the United States with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are 75 years or older. Further, they report (2015) that some 5.3 million Americans (all ages) have Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).Of note, 5.1 million people (of the 5.3 million) are age 65 and older, yet 200,000 individuals younger than age 65 have younger-onset Alzheimer’s. The Alzheimer’s Association  reports that 11 percent of the population over age 65 have AD, and one-third of people 85 years and older.

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Nasal Decongestants and Air Travel

Lundy (2015) reports that Ovari and colleagues assembled a prospective, non-randomized study at a tertiary referral center, to evaluate nasal decongestants based on xylometazoline (similar to oxymetazoline) that may be found in Afrin® Nasal Spray, Anefrin® Nasal Spray, Dristan® Nasal Spray, Mucinex® Nasal Spray, Nostrilla® Nasal Spray, Vicks Sinex® Nasal Spray.

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Hearing Impairment and Diabetes in Veterans

Konrad-Martin et al (2015) report that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome affecting one-twelfth of all American adults. Of note, they report that Type 2 DM affects 1 of every 4 to 5 v veterans receiving care at the Veterans Health Administration. (Note that Type 1 DM is less common, Type 2 is the more common and accounts for some 90-95 percent of all diabetes in U.S. adults. See Am Fam Physician. 2010 81(7):863-870.) The authors note that multiple reports suggest hearing loss is (very likely) a disabling complication of DM.  

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Alzheimer’s Disease: 2015

The comprehensive 2015 report from the Alzheimer’s Association states that “Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia…AD is characterized by a decline in memory, language, problem-solving, and other cognitive skills that affects a person’s ability to perform everyday activities. This decline occurs because nerve cells (neurons) in parts of the brain involved in cognitive function have been damaged and no longer function normally.

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