Several large-scale studies are consistently pointing toward an association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hearing loss. Torre and his colleagues have recently reported HIV as a risk factor for hearing loss in children and adults. HIV-infected children have poorer hearing compared to HIV-unexposed but uninfected children as well as those who are perinatally exposed to HIV, but remain uninfected. HIV-infected adults also have poorer hearing compared to HIV-uninfected adults. Further, the magnitude of hearing loss seems to increase with the severity of HIV. Modern treatment approaches have converted HIV from a terminal to a chronic health condition. However, it appears that these individuals now will need long-term hearing care. All health-care professionals working with HIV+ individuals should be made aware of this association between HIV and hearing loss.
For Additional Information, see selected References
Chao C, Czechowicz JA, Messner AH, et al. (2012). High prevalence of hearing impairment in HIV-infected Peruvian children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Sur 146:259-265.
Luque A, Orlando M, Leong U, et al. (2014). Hearing function in patients living with HIV/AIDS. Ear Hear 35(6):e282-e290.
Maro I, Moshi N, Clavier O, et al. (2014). Auditory impairments in HIV-infected individuals in Tanzania. Ear Hear 35(3):306-317.
Taipale A, Pelkonen T, Taipale M, et al. (2011). Otorhinolaryngological findings and hearing in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children in a developing country. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 268:527-1532.
Torre III P, Cook A, Elliott, H, et al. (2015). Hearing assessment data in HIV infected and uninfected children of Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Care. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1080/09540121.2015.1021746
Torre III P, Hoffman H, Springer G, et al. (2014). Cochlear function among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women. Ear Hear 35:56-62.
Torre III P, Hoffman H, Springer G, et al. (2015). Hearing loss among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women. JAMA Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 141(3):202-210.
Torre III P, Yao T, Zeldow B, et al. (2015). Distortion product otoacoustic emission data in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J 34(3):276-278.
Torre III P, Zeldow B, Hoffman HJ, et al. (2012). Hearing loss in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:835-841.
van der Westhuizen Y, Swanepoel de W, Heinze B, et al. (2013). Auditory and otological manifestations in adults with HIV/AIDS. Int J Audiol 52:37-43.
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