By Amanda Demas and Amanda Ortmann This article is a part of the September/October 2021, Volume 33, Number 5, Audiology Today issue. Speech-to-text transcription (STT) is the process of converting spoken words into text. STT does not refer to the captions themselves, but rather to the process of creating them. STT serves as an umbrella term that does not indicate how speech is transcribed, only that speech is being transcribed in some way. The transcription process can be achieved either by human efforts or by artificial intelligence (AI). AI is defined as “the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages” (Oxford Languages, 2021). STT is important for individuals who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2014). Additionally, STT is beneficial for the “normal” hearing population in environments with a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), as well as in educational environments and for those who are second-language learners (Cucchiarini et al, 2000; Liao et al, 2020; Li, 2016). Individuals in any of these situations are considered learners because they are often expected to listen, take notes, integrate information, and ask questions. If proper content access is not provided for these individuals and situations, learning may be compromised. STT can be used in classrooms, meetings, conferences, movies, television shows, phone calls, and even small-group or one-on-one conversations. Regardless of the situation, STT has the ability to provide access to speech through real-time transcription. This content is an exclusive benefit for American Academy of Audiology members. If you're a member, log in and you'll get immediate access. Member Login If you're not yet a member, you'll be interested to know that joining not only gives you access to top-notch resources like this one, but also invitations to member-only events, inclusion in the member directory, participation in professional forums, and access to patient resources, tools, and continuing education. Join today!